Innovation: Megapixel Sensor
There were two crucial developments leading to the invention of the megapixel sensor. First, George Smith and Willard Boyle from Bell Labs invented the charge-coupled device (CCD). This technology is the same image sensor that is used in all digital cameras. Second, Sony Corporation developed the first prototype digital camera called the Mavica (Magnetic Video Camera). The Mavica only actually took electronic still images, so it was not a true “digital camera”, but it did produce a 720,000 pixel image.
A few years later, in 1986, Kodak produced the first megapixel sensor, a fingernail sized solid state device capable of recording 1.4 million pixels. Previously, cameras captured images on film; with the advent of the megapixel sensor, users could record images without need of a physical medium like film and so accessing images became significantly easier. With the megapixel sensor, users could quickly capture an image and share it with others without wasting valuable time and money dealing with dark rooms and developing film.
Innovation: Microstation v1.0
By: Bentley Systems
Microstation, which is similar to AutoCAD, is a software product for creating 2-D and 3-D designs and drafting. Microstation is used primarily for architectural and engineering purposes and can also provide special environments for civil engineering, mapping, and plant design.
The earliest version of Microstation, v 1.0, came about through Bentley’s experience developing an earlier platform called PseudoStation (1984). Version 1.0 was a simple, read only and plot program designed for the DGN file format and ran exclusively on the IBM PC-AT personal computer. Version 1.0 was only capable of producing basic 2D line drawings and had a very limited interface.
To date, eleven versions of Microstation have been released and the software has come a long way. Now, users have access to an incredible amount of features including a nearly limitless design plane, unlimited levels, no file size limits, standard definitions for working units, movie generation, and many more. Software like Microstation has enabled us to take what was bound in our imagination and produce real world projects. Microstation is widely used by European firms whereas AutoCAD is more prevalent in the United States.
Innovation: AutoCAD v1.0
By: John Walker, Autodesk
AutoCAD is a software application produced by Autodesk, Inc. that enables computer-aided design (CAD) and drafting. The software is used to produce 2-D and 3-D drawings and is used in a range of industries including architecture, project management, engineering, and others.
Before AutoCAD v1.0 and similar computer based modeling software were introduced to the world in 1982, drawing and modeling was done entirely by hand, using a drafting desk and a t-square. Today, with software like AutoCAD and its close competitors, almost everything is done using computer technology. AutoCAD allows the user to create beautiful and complex 2-D or 3-D images, building from basic entities (lines, polylines, circles, arcs, and text).
Looking to the future, we may soon see versions of AutoCAD in mobile format (phones/tablets) to enable on-the-go creation and newer versions of CAD may be implementing “cloud” based file storage. `
Innovation: Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP)
Location: United States
By: Robert E. Kahn, Vinton Cerf, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
The Internet Protocol Suite is the set of procedures used by computers to communicate with one another over the internet and other networks. The name TCP/IP comes from the suite’s most vital protocols: Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol. TCP/IP specifies how data sent between computers should be formatted, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received. The protocols are based on various “layers” (application layer, transport layer, internet layer, and link layer) .
The origins of TCP/IP are rooted in research undertaken by DARPA (see above) within the U.S. Department of Defense. The primary challenge was to figure out how to connect local, stand-alone computers to a network to quickly and efficiently transfer information.
In March 1982 the US D.o.D. declared TCP/IP as the standard for all military networking and subsequently the public and private spheres followed suit. This development laid the necessary foundations for the advent of the internet. Without TCP/IP, we would not have access to web based content for our vital programs and features we now take for granted like email and Google would be nonexistent.