1982: Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP)
Innovation: Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP)
Location: United States
By: Robert E. Kahn, Vinton Cerf, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
The Internet Protocol Suite is the set of procedures used by computers to communicate with one another over the internet and other networks. The name TCP/IP comes from the suite’s most vital protocols: Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol. TCP/IP specifies how data sent between computers should be formatted, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received. The protocols are based on various “layers” (application layer, transport layer, internet layer, and link layer) .
The origins of TCP/IP are rooted in research undertaken by DARPA (see above) within the U.S. Department of Defense. The primary challenge was to figure out how to connect local, stand-alone computers to a network to quickly and efficiently transfer information.
In March 1982 the US D.o.D. declared TCP/IP as the standard for all military networking and subsequently the public and private spheres followed suit. This development laid the necessary foundations for the advent of the internet. Without TCP/IP, we would not have access to web based content for our vital programs and features we now take for granted like email and Google would be nonexistent.