Innovation: Aerospace CAD Design
By: Avions Marcel Dassault
CATIA (pron: K’tia) – Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application – is a 3D Product Lifecycle Management program that supports product development from design to the manufacturing and construction stage. CATIA can be used to create 3D parts made of sheet metal, composites or molds, based on digital 3D sketches. It was the first CAD/CAE/CAM software created.  Originally called CATI (Conception Assistée Tridimensionnelle Interactive – French for Interactive Aided Three-dimensional Design), it was developed in 1977 as a surface modeler to assist in designing the Dassault fighter jets. Based on ten years of 3-D mathematics research, the program allowed designers and engineers to create complex three dimensional forms and provide documents for manufacturing. In 1981 the program was renamed CATIA and Dassault Systemes was formed to develop and sell the program. In 1984 Boeing chose CATIA as its main CAD tool centralizing it as an aerospace CAD tool . In 1989 Chrysler began using CATIA for it’s Jeep and truck designs, introducing CATIA into the automotive industry where it has quickly grown to be used in some form by most automobile manufacturers . In 1990 CATIA was choosen by the General Dynamics Electric Boat Corporation to design U.S. Navy submarines, and in 1998 CATIA V5 was released with features created specifically for shipbuilders. This program is not limited to the aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding fields, it can be used to design electrical and HVAC systems. Frank Gehry’s curvilinear designs have been modeled using CATIA .
Innovation: Exposing the Infrastructure on the Building’s Exterior
Building: Centre Georges Pompidou
Location: Paris, France
By: Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers, Gianfranco Franchini (Architects)
Structural Engineer: Ove Arup & Partners
In 1971 Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers, and Gianfranco Franchini, three unknown architects, won the design competition for the new Paris library and museum of contemporary art. In 1977 construction was completed. The assembly of the exterior steel supports took only six months. The design of the Centre Georges Pompidou reversed everything that had been previously done in architecture, removing the internal systems and structural supports out of the interior of the building and exposing them on the outside of the building . The escalators, elevators, HVAC systems, water pipes, and structural supports make up the brightly painted exterior of the building. Each steel component has been painted a color that indicates its purpose: red for transportation, blue for air, green for water, yellow for electricity, gray for corridors, and white for the structural components of the building . By removing the infrastructure for the interior this design allowed for huge open floor spaces unimpeded by columns or stairwells. The Centre Georges Pompidou made the infrastructure a centerpiece of the building rather than hiding it.
Innovation: Mass-Marketing of the Personal Computer
Location: United States
By: Apple Computer and Commodore International
In June 1977 Apple ][ and the Commodore PET 2001 were introduced at the Las Vegas Consumers Electronics show and shortly after were brought to the public. Both of these computers originally had 4 KB of RAM and were built around a MOS Technology 6502 Microprocessor. The Apple ][ had basic sound and the first color screen making it popular for personal use . Over the four years it was produced, 4 million Apple ][ were sold. The Commodore PET was the first computer to include the components as part of whole, with the monitor, keyboard, and circuitry combined as a single package . Less than 1 million of the Commodore PETs were sold, but they were made popular in schools due to the sturdy construction. At the same time the TRS-80, produced by RadioShack, sold 1.5 million. These three computers were called the 1977 “Trinity,” and led the way for the expanded use of personal computers . The wide spread use of the personal computer allowed for greater knowledge of the systems available and opened the door for further development of how computers could be used in professional situations. `
Innovation: Largest Tower Crane in the World
By: KRØLL Cranes A/S, Berthold Lang
The KRØLL K-10000 has held the title of the world’s largest tower crane for over 35 years. Standing almost 400 feet tall with a 266 foot jib reach, the standard jib model can lift 120 tons at a radius of 269 feet. The long jib model can lift 94 tons to a radius of 330 ft. The K-10000 can rotate 360° once it has been bolted to its 40 foot diameter concrete base. This allows the crane to cover an area of 7.5 acres, or approximately 6 football fields. A second servicing crane is attached to the top for the original construction and future maintenance of the K-10000. A system of three counterweights, one set and two mobile on trolleys, weighing a total of 100 tons, are used to balance the crane. Under this load the crane can withstand wind speeds of up to 175 mph.  With its immense jib span and load capacity the K-10000 decreases the time for construction on huge construction projects by eliminating the need for small cranes and crawlers.
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