Innovation: Shipping Ice
Location: New England, United States of America
By: Frederic Tudor
Shipping ice came to place by the efforts of Bostonian business man, Frederic Tudor in the early 1800s. He launched the ice transportation industry with in the United States of America and then expanding to the Caribbean, Europe, and India. He was known as the “Ice King” after his rapid expansion with almost all industries that needed the invention of ice in cooling different things.
One of the things that the Ice King Frederic Tudor was known for, his conflict with the father refrigeration and air conditioning John Gorrie for causing his failure in completing his theory about air conditioning using ice when Frederic Tudor campaigned against the invention. Using the compressed low pressure refrigerant vapor the ice machine turns it to into a high pressured vapor that gets delivered to the condenser. It gets condensed to a low pressure liquid then it gets sent to an evaporator where heat exchange occurs and ice is created. This process of refrigeration cycle is later used by other scientists to develop the cooling systems that we use now a days.
Innovation: Rapid Evaporation
Location: Cambridge, United Kingdom
By: Benjamin Franklin & John Hadley
Rapid evaporation was one of the concepts that Benjamin Franklin and John Hadley studied to improve the air conditioning systems that we have now a days. During the mid-1700, the majority of scientists were trying to explore new ideas behind air heating and cooling to enhance a complete system of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) of building. Benjamin Franklin and John Hadley were the pioneer researchers at the time that worked on how to alter the properties of air to the best quality of conditioning. John Hardley a chemistry professor at the University of Cambridge, along with the famous Ben Franklin, they both conducted an experiment that aimed in proving the principle of evaporation as a tool in rapidly cool down an object.
This innovation definitely improved the way we design our HVAC systems in the modern buildings. It was geared towards making scientists that came afterwards design systems that are more sustainable and energy efficient.
Innovation: 1st commerical steam engine
Location: London, England
By: Thomas Newcomen
In 1712, the Newcomen engine was completed to put into practice in harnessing the use of steam in mechanically powering every day processes. The steam engines were used efficiently throughout the United Kingdom and Europe mainly to pump water out of mines and wells with less effort than the traditional process.
In 1763, James Watt starts the progress of developing the Newcomen engine to result into today’s concept of steam engines. Watt realized that there was a lot of power wasted through the cooling and heating cylinder. Moreover, James Watt then started studying a solution that traps the heat in the cylinder in order to sustain the same temperature of the very hot steam.
All of these developments indirectly helped the revolution of transporting construction materials across the continent with commercial steamboats appearing in the early 1800’s, and steam-powered trains following soon after. `
Innovation: Camera obscura in drawing process
By: Leonardo Da Vinci, Canaletto, Paul Sandby, Joshua Reynolds
The concept of camera obscura was first thought of by the Arabic physicist Ibn al-Haytham during the 10th century. Then with time this invention started to be used in different types of processes. Drawing was one of the things that was revolutionized with in this innovation. Artists started using the camera obscura as a drawing aid by tracing the images projected on the screen. The camera obscura made the fundamentals of perspective and structure proportionality a lot easier to sketch. Because this invention was really important, a long line of inventors worked together to improve the sole function of this device which lead to the invention of the now a days camera. On the other hand, the camera obscura was considered a unethical way of some artists to take credit for drawing a very précis sceneries that were actually traced of this device. It was proven that some famous artists during the 17th and 18th century used the camera obscura as a mechanical aid to traditional oil painting that was known at the time. Leonardo Da Vinci, Canaletto, Paul Sandby, and Joshua Reynolds were some of the names that often were credited with the invention.