1946: Arup founded (Integrated Design)
Innovation: Ove N. Arup, Consulting Engineers (integrated design)
Location: London, United Kingdom
By: Sir Ove Arup
Ove N. Arup, Consulting Engineers was founded in 1946 by Sir Ove Nyquist Arup. Ove Arup introduced the concept of Total Design, also known as integrated design – in which architects and engineers (and building contractor) work together as a collaborative design team from the early stages of design. This is in contrast to the traditional role of architect as designer, and engineer as consultant – the engineer traditionally engaged later the design process. [GB]
The firm, since 1946, has become one of the largest “independent firm of designers, planners, engineers, consultants and technical specialists offering a broad range of professional services.”  Arup has shaped the engineering and architecture industries by stepping out of the comfort zone and into a realm of fresh, imaginative, cutting-edge structures. With offices spanning 42 countries, Arup continues to purse projects around the world. Some of their most notable projects include the Sydney Opera House (1973), the Beijing National Stadium (2008), The London Eye (1999) and the London Aquatics Center (2012).
“Engineering problems are under-defined; there are many solutions, good, bad and indifferent. The art is to arrive at a good solution. This is a creative activity, involving imagination, intuition and deliberate choice.” – Ove Arup.  `