2650 BC: Great Pyramid of Giza – Giza, Egypt
Innovation: Great Pyramid of Giza
Location: Giza, Egypt
Year: 2560 BC
The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and biggest pyramid location in Giza. It was constructed as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharoah Kuhfu over a 15 year period until 2560 BC. The process in which this was built has been debated for years, but it’s accepted that the Egyptians built a ramp that permitted them to drag the blocks into the appropriate positions. It was built to be 480.6 feet tall and was the tallest man made structure for over 3 millennium. There are an estimated 2.3 million blocks of stone that were taken from nearby quarries, each around 2.5 tons in weight. Each side of the building is similar to the same differing by approximately 8 inches. The corners are all aligned with the 4 cardinal directions of the compass, at this time the compass had not even been created. The stones were cut with such precision that they were within .01 inch of being perfectly smooth, and were all brought together at .001 of an inch from a perfect 90 degree angle. With such technologies today it would be difficult to replicate this monumental structure.